8th Grade Grammar

Nouns:

  • Nominative: This shows who or what is doing the action in a sentence. Also called the Subject.
  • Subject: It’s the main noun or pronoun in a sentence that does the action.
  • Predicate Nominative: This renames the subject after a linking verb.
  • Genitive: It shows who owns or has something, like saying “of” something.
  • Dative: It tells us who receives something or who something is for, like “to” or “for.” Also called the Indirect Object.
  • Indirect Object: This is the person or thing that gets something from the action, often after words like “to” or “for.”
  • Accusative: This shows who or what is receiving the action directly.
  • Ablative: It tells us how something is done, like “by,” “with,” or “from.”
  • Vocative: This is when we’re talking directly to someone, like saying their name.

Pronouns:

  • Pronouns: Words that take the place of nouns to avoid repeating the same words.
  • In English, for example, she, he, and I
  • In Latin,  for example, ea, is, ego,
  • Relative Pronouns: Words that help connect ideas together in sentences.
  • Interrogative Pronouns: These help us ask questions, like “who” or “what”.

    Verbs:

    • Tenses: Different times of verbs to show when things happen, for example, the past or future
    • Infinitive Mood: The base form of a verb,
    • In English, look for the trigger word “to,” like “to run” or “to jump.”
    • In Latin, look for the trigger word “-re” on the end of a verb, like amare
    • Past: This is when the verb happened already
    • In English, look for trigger words like “yesterday” or “was walking, used to walk, or walked”
    • In Latin, look for trigger words like “heri” or the letter “-ba-” and the personal endings “-bam, -bas, -bat, -bamus, -batis, -bant”
    • Future: This is when the verb has not happened yet.
    • In English, look for trigger words like “tomorrow” or “will walking, going to walk, or shall walk”
    • In Latin, look for trigger words like “cras” or the letters “-bo-, -bi-, -bu-” or the personal endings “-bo, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt”
    • Irregular Verbs: Verbs that don’t follow the usual rules, like “to be” or “to have.”

    Adjectives:

    • These are describing words that tell us more about nouns.
    • In English these endings don’t match, for example small horse
    • In Latin, their endings match, for example parvus equus

    Questions:

    • In English, these mostly start with the letter W (who, what, where, when, and why)
    • In Latin, these mostly start with the letter Q (Quis, Quid, ubi, quando, and cur )

    Adverbs:

    • Words that describe how actions happen,
    • In English, uses -ly, for example quickly, slowly, or happily.
    • In Latin, uses -e (macron), for example laete

    Conjunctions:

    • Words that join ideas together in sentences
    • In English, these go between words, for example “and,” “or,” “because”, “but”,  and “where”
    • In Latin, these go between words, et, aut, quod, sed, and ubi

    Enclitics:

    • Words that stick to the end of other words.
    • In Latin – ne and -que
    • In Latin, -ne signifies a question in Latin since the Romans had no punctuation
    • In Latin, sometimes et can be attached to the end of word, such as -que

    Interjections:

    • Words that show strong feelings or emotions
    • In English, these usually appear with an exclamation point, for example, “Behold” and “Oh no!” and “YES!”
    • In Latin, there is no punctuation, for example, “ECCE” and “EHEU” and “EUGE”

    Miscellaneous:

    When you think about suffering, what comes to mind? Do you envision bedraggled children with distended stomachs, a hospital patient hooked up to life-sustaining medical equipment, or a courageous veteran dealing with the aftermath of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.  Adversity seems to be a common denominator to human existence, but what does the Bible have to say about suffering?

    Jesus spoke to His disciples about suffering. One of the most well-known verses reads, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me” (Matthew 16:24 ESV). The Greek word for cross in this verse is staurós. It refers to the crossbeam which the lowest criminals carried as they trudged toward their execution. The cross symbolized degradation and indescribable pain as well as sacrifice.

    While the invitation to eternal life is free, it comes at a price–certain suffering.

    (MULTILINE)

    7th Grade Grammar

    Nouns:

    • In Latin, noun endings to show what job the noun is doing in the sentence.
    • is a person place thing or idea
    • Nouns be or direct
    • : This Latin ending shows who or what is the action in a sentence.  Latin ends in -us, a
    • Subject: It’s the main noun or pronoun in a sentence that the action. Also called the doer.
    • Predicate Nominative or double subject: This renames the subject after a linking or weak verb. It matches the noun.
    • This Latin ending shows who or what is receiving the action directly.  Latin ends – um, – am
    • Direct Object: It’s the main noun or pronoun in a sentence that the action. Also called the receiver.

    Pronouns:

    • Pronouns: Words that take the place of to avoid repeating the same words. For example, Traci is talking could be said as she is talking.
    • In English, for example, she, he, and I
    • In Latin,  for example,

      Verbs:

      • Verbs are words.
      • Verbs have in English and Latin, like tense and mood.
      • : Different times of verbs to show when things happen, for example, the past or future
      • Present:  This is when the verb is happening
      • In English, look for trigger words like or ” is walking, am walking or walks”
      • In Latin, look for trigger words like or the absence of the letter “ and the personal endings “-o, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt”
      • Mood: This is the of the verb.
      • Indicative Mood: This is a normal sentence, like in stories.
      • Imperative Mood: This tells someone what to do, like a .
      • In English, look for an and
      • In Latin, look for and a short verb or -te . Like AMA! AMATE!

      Adjectives:

      • These are describing words that tell us more about .
      • In English, these word endings don’t match, for example small horse
      • In Latin, these word endings match, for example

      Questions:

      • In English, these mostly start with the letter W (who, what, where, when, and why)
      • In Latin, these mostly start with the letter Q (Quis, Quid, and )

      Adverbs:

      • Words that describe how actions happen,
      • In English, uses -ly, for example quickly, slowly, or happily.
      • In Latin, uses -e (macron), for example laete

      Conjunctions:

      • Words that join ideas together in sentences
      • In English, these go between words, for example “and,” “or,” “because”, “but”,  and “where”
      • In Latin, these go between words, and

      Enclitics:

      • Words that stick to the end of other words.
      • In Latin – ne and -que
      • In Latin, -ne signifies a question in Latin since the Romans had no punctuation
      • In Latin, sometimes et can be attached to the end of word, such as -que

      Interjections:

      • Words that show strong feelings or emotions
      • In English, these usually appear with an exclamation point, for example, “Behold” and “Oh no!” and “YES!”
      • In Latin, there is no punctuation, for example, “” and “” and “EUGE”

       

      7th Grade Grammar: Latin Essentials

      Nouns:

      • What are they? Nouns are words that name. (e.g., teacher, Rome, book, freedom)
      • Jobs in a sentence: Nouns can be the (who/what does the action) or the (who/what receives the action) or a double (predicate nominative).
        • Subject: The Romans built the Colosseum. (Romans = answers built?)
        • Direct Object: I like pizza. (Pizza = answers about I like?)
        • Double Subject: Iulius Caesar is a senator. (senator = answers is Caesar and further subject)
      • Endings: In Latin, noun endings depending on their role in the sentence.
        • Nominative ending:  This Latin ending shows who or what is the action in a sentence. 
        • Latin examples: In Latin, these words can end in in the singular and if plural,  can end in -i, -ae
          • For example, equus, puella, equi, puellae
        • Accusative ending:  This Latin ending shows who or what is the action in a sentence. 
        • Latin examples: In Latin, these words can end in in the singular and if plural, can end in -os, -as
          • For example, equum, puellae, equos, puellas

      Pronouns:

      • What are they? Pronouns are words that take the place of  to avoid repetition. (e.g., she, he, I)
      • Latin examples: In Latin, (she),  (he),  (I)

      Verbs:

      • What are they? Verbs are words that show  events, or states of being. (e.g., run, eat, sleep)
      • Time: Verbs can show different  (tense) like past, present, or future.
        • Present Tense: I walk/am walking to school now. (walk = happening )
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for trigger words like
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for the absence of the letter in the verb
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for the personal endings “-o, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt”
      • Mood: Verbs can also show the speaker’s . (e.g., statement, command)
        • Indicative Mood (sentence): He runs.
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for any sentence that isn’t a .
        • Imperative Mood (command): Run! (short verb = command)
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for an and speech quotation marks.
          • Latin examples: In Latin, look for the trigger ending to the end of a verb,
          • For example, like AMA! AMATE!

      Adjectives:

      • What are they? Adjectives are words that describe (e.g., tall, happy, beautiful).
      • Matching Endings: In Latin, adjective endings  the noun they describe.
        • Latin examples: In Latin, look for words that end in -us, a, -um
        • Each matches a gender is masculine, is feminine, and -um is neuter.
          • Small house: parva villa (parva = small describes villa)
          • Brown hair:  fusca coma (fusca= brown describes hair)

      Questions:

      • What are they? A question is a sentence that asks for information.
      • Starting points: Questions in English often begin with “W” words (who, what, where, when, why).
      • Latin examples: Latin questions usually start with “Q” words (Quis, Quid, Ubi, Quando, Cur).

      Adverbs:

      • What are they? Adverbs are words that describe a verb, adverb, or adjective.
      • They tell us how, where, when, or to what extent something happens. (e.g., quickly, slowly, very).
      • Latin endings: Many adverbs in Latin use the “-e” ending as “ly”. (e.g., laete = happily).

      Conjunctions:

      • What are they? Conjunctions are words that connect words or phrases in a sentence. (e.g., and, or, because, but).
      • Latin examples: et (and), aut (or), quod (because), sed (but).

      Enclitics: 

      • What are they? These are tiny words that attach to the end of other words in Latin.
      • Latin Examples: e.g., -ne to make a question (question mark), -que to connect words (And).

      Interjections: 

      • What are they? These express strong emotions and often appear with an exclamation point. (E.g. Look!, Wow!, Beware!, Yay!
      • Latin Examples: e.g., Ecce!, Papae!, Cave!, Euge!
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